Graphite occurrence in Ethiopia is known for many years, but a significant study was not carried out except some reconnaissance work at different localities around Kibre Mengist along with kyanite and talc minerals.
The northeastern branch of the Mozambique Belt, a major Proterozoic structural and metamorphic unit of East Africa extends from Kenya through Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa into southern Arabia (Warden & Horke 1984). In the Mozambique Belt of southern Ethiopia, three major divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Complexes) have been differentiated by characteristic contrasts in lithology, metamorphism, and structural style (Kazmin et al. 1978). Metasedimentary rocks (graphitic phyllites, biotite schists, and meta calcareous rocks) in the Adola area form the uppermost unit of the Upper Complex of southern Ethiopia. On the basis of this scheme, the rocks of the Moyale region are correlated with the lower part of the Upper Complex and are probably Neo Proterozoic in age (Alene & Barker 1993).