Zambia is a landlocked country located in Southern-Central Africa. With a population of over 17 million, over 10% of residents live in the capital, Lusaka. It is bordered by the DRC to the north, Tanzania to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. In 2019, the nation exported US$ 6.9 billion, the main export groups being copper, salt, cement, cobalt, and gold. Gems and precious metals were the fastest-growing export group from 2018 to 2019 with a rise of 119.7%. Zambia has a complex geological history beginning in the Proterozoic Eon. The Central African Copperbelt is found in the north as the Katanga Supergroup (Neoproterozoic). The formation is well-studied for its rich copper-cobalt deposits.
The Roan Group hosts much of the copper in the Copperbelt as chalcocite, chalcopyrite, bornite, malachite and azurite. The Karoo Supergroup (Late Carboniferous- Early Jurassic) consists of mostly nonmarine lithologies. The sequence is capped by basalt lava flows from the Jurassic. The Lower Karoo rocks host coal and the upper rocks contain uranium. The supergroup is overlain by Late Jurassic-Cretaceous sandstones and mudstones that have been intruded by carbonatite and kimberlite. Various orogenies and magmatic events have contributed to the numerous metal and mineral reserves that Zambia has to offer. The Ubendian Orogeny and the Irumide Orogeny are responsible for forming fold belts and shearing of the Basement lithologies. The Lomamian and Luflian Orogenies generated the Luflian Arc and Zambezi-Mozambique Belts. The final tectono-thermal event was the Karoo Rifting was responsible for the variations in the nation’s rift valleys and for the creation of the late Karoo Batoka Basalts.
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