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The Republic of Rwanda, a landlocked country in the Great Rift Valley, where the African Great lakes region and East Africa converge. Located a few degrees south of the Equator, the country is bordered by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Despite the challenges brought about by the pandemic and the economy falling into recession, GDP growth in Rwanda is at 3.6%, in 2021. Mining and export of mineral resources in Rwanda in recent times have proven to have huge impact on the economy, in 2019 Gold was the top export earner for Rwanda, with an estimated traded value of $471 million. The government is working hard to formalize this sector to attract international mining investment, and increase domestic mineral processing. In 2017 The Rwanda Mining and Gas and Petroleum board were established to oversee government efforts in this sector. Rwanda is home to many mineral resources; gold, and Nickel. In addition to this, the country has other precious stones such as amphibolite, granites, quartzite, volcanic rocks, clay, sand, and other rare earth elements.

Quick Facts


Primary Mineral

114,000 MT

Estimated Reserves


Tax Benefits

100 ASM

Resource Businesses

Mining in Rwanda started in the early 1930s, and since then, the mining sector has undergone comprehensive reforms and is now Rwanda’s second-largest export revenue earner. In 2020 the Mining and quarrying contributed 3% of total GDP, trading over $166 million with an export total of $83 million.

Rwanda’s mineral resources include Cassiterite, Coltan, Wolfram, Peat (used for electricity generation or processed as an alternative for firewood), Gold, and Nickel. In addition to this, the country has other precious stones such as Amphibolite, Granites, Quartzite, Volcanic Rocks, Clay, Sand, and Gravel.
Rwanda produces between 8,000 and 9,000 tons of mineral compounds every year, and the amount of money depends on the market pricing dynamics.

Gold mining and export have recently emerged to have significant potential. Rwanda is among the top producers of Tantalum, producing about 9% of the world’s Tantalum used in electronics manufacturing.
In 2019 Rwanda was ranked 3rd largest exporter of Tin Ores and that same year Tin Ore was the 5th most exported product in Rwanda amounting to about $72 million, the leading destinations of Tin Ores are Thailand, United Arab Emirates Singapore and Malaysia
Rwanda is now home to two refineries of Gold and Tin, both of which can process a capacity to refine 6 tons of Gold a month, or about 220 kilograms a day from within the country and the region. In 2019 Rwanda exported Gold worth $471 million to the United Arab Emirates, Turkey reported an import of $53 million of Gold from Rwanda in 2020
Rwanda has a mineral tagging and sealing scheme, internationally recognized as a member of the iTSCi program that ensures that the minerals’ origins can be traced to avoid conflict financing, human rights abuses, or other malpractices such as bribery in mineral supply chains.
Rwanda has implement Certified Trade Chain (CTC), which establishes and implements standards for artisanal and small-scale Mining and certifies that minerals produced by mining companies and cooperatives comply with the five basic principles: Traceability, Fair working conditions, Safety, and human rights, and Community Development.

Industrial activity in 2020 contributed 1.7 percentage points to GDP growth of 10%. The National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda reports that the industrial production index increased by 68% in 2021 compared to 28.1% in 2020. The Rwandan franc devalued 5.4% on a nominal basis compared to the US dollar in 2020. In 2019 it had a 4.9% depreciation.

Rwanda was one of the countries with the best results in financing the entire physical infrastructure (i.e., private and public financing). From 2014 to 2019, Rwanda’s cumulative total infrastructure commitment surpasses all peer countries, including countries with higher per capita income than Rwanda, except Zambia, which recorded 24% of its GDP.
The pandemic will continue to limit recovery. By 2023, GDP growth is expected to be lower than the pre-pandemic average because the uncertainty of the pandemic process limits investment, travel restrictions, and fear of travel limits tourism, and the weak labor market exerts pressure on private consumption

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