Mining in Rwanda started in the early 1930s, and since then, the mining sector has undergone comprehensive reforms and is now Rwanda’s second-largest export revenue earner. In 2020 the Mining and quarrying contributed 3% of total GDP, trading over $166 million with an export total of $83 million.
Rwanda’s mineral resources include Cassiterite, Coltan, wolfram, peat (used for electricity generation or processed as an alternative for firewood), gold, and Nickel. In addition to this, the country has other precious stones such as amphibolite, granites, quartzite, volcanic rocks, clay, sand, and gravel.
Rwanda produces between 8,000 and 9,000 tons of mineral compounds every year, and the amount of money depends on the market pricing dynamics.
Gold mining and export have recently emerged to have significant potential. Rwanda is among the top producers of tantalum, producing about 9% of the world’s tantalum used in electronics manufacturing.
In 2019 Rwanda was ranked 3rd largest exporter of tin ores and that same year tin ore was the 5th most exported product in Rwanda raking about $72 million, the leading destination of tin ores is Thailand, United Arab Emirates Singapore and Malaysia
Rwanda is now home to two refineries of gold and tin, both of which can process a capacity to refine 6 tons of gold a month, or about 220 kilograms a day from within the country and the region. In 2019 Rwanda exported gold worth $471 million to the United Arab Emirates, turkey reported import of $53 million gold from Rwanda in 2020
Rwanda has a mineral tagging and sealing scheme, internationally recognized as a member of the iTSCi program that ensures that the minerals’ origins can be traced to avoid conflict financing, human rights abuses, or other malpractices such as bribery in mineral supply chains.
Rwanda’s has to implement Certified Trade Chain (CTC) project, which establishes and implements standards for artisanal and small-scale Mining and certifies that minerals produced by mining companies and cooperatives comply with the five basic principles: Traceability, Fair working conditions, Safety, and human rights, and Communities Development environment
Industrial activity in 2020 contributed 1.7 percentage points to GDP growth of 10%. The National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda reports that the industrial production index increased by 0f 68% in 2021 compared to 28.1 in 2020. The Rwandan franc devalued 5.4% on a nominal basis compared to the US dollar in 2020. 2019 4.9% depreciation.
Rwanda was one of the countries with the best results in financing the entire physical infrastructure (i.e., private and public financing). From 2014 to 2019, Rwanda’s cumulative total infrastructure commitment surpasses all peer countries, including countries with higher per capita income than Rwanda, except Zambia, which recorded 24% of GDP.
The pandemic will continue to limit recovery. By 2023, GDP growth is expected to be lower than the pre-pandemic average because the uncertainty of the pandemic process limits investment, travel restrictions, and fear of travel limit tourism, and the weak labor market exerts pressure on private consumption
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