The Republic of Liberia is located in West Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire and to the south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. With a land area of about 111 000 km2 and a population of nearly 4.1 million much of Liberia is sparsely populated comprising rolling plateaux and low mountains away from a narrow flat coastal plain.
Liberia is richly endowed with natural resources, including minerals, water and forests, and has a climate favourable to agriculture. Important economic deposits of iron ore, gold and diamonds are known in Liberia and there is considerable potential for additional discoveries. A wide range of other mineral resources are present and minerals with known potentially economic targets. These include barite, bauxite, manganese, heavy mineral sands, kyanite, phosphate, kaolin-rich clay and silica sand.
In addition, there is also potential for polymetallic base metals: copper, lead, nickel, tin, tungsten and zinc.
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Liberia is underlain by the Man Shield, which comprises two major areas of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks. The Archaean basement, which is of Liberian age (2.5–3.0 Ga) and extends across central and western Liberia, is characterised by a granite-greenstone association that is dominated by granitoid gneisses and migmatites, which are infolded with supracrustal metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks and intruded by a younger igneous complex. The supracrustal rocks form discontinuous narrow, elongate 'schist belts'. The metamorphic grade is generally amphibolite facies with greenschist facies dominating the schist belts. The boundary between Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic-aged rocks (the Eburnean-age province, 1.8–2.5 Ga) is not well defined in eastern Liberia, but is generally considered to lie along the north-east-trending Cestos Shear Zone. The south-eastern part of this province in Liberia, extending west from Côte d'Ivoire to Greenville, consists of tightly folded paragneiss, migmatite and amphibolite. The north-western part of the province, to the north of Greenville, has similar lithologies and geophysical characteristics, but younger isotopic ages. An extensive Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequence, the Birimian Supergroup, surrounds the Archaean basement of the Man Craton along its northern and eastern margins. The supracrustal rocks are surrounded by a regionally extensive granitoid complex. Although the genetic relationship between the Birimian sequence elsewhere in west Africa and the Eburnean-age province of Liberia is unclear, they are widely considered to be equivalent. Rocks of Pan African age (approximately 550 Ma) underlie an elongate, fault-bounded zone along much of Liberia's coastline. They comprise metasedimentary and mafic meta-igneous rocks, containing granitic bodies and subordinate noritic intrusions. Phanerozoic rocks in Liberia include extensive north-west-trending Jurassic-age dolerite dykes, minor Palaeozoic and Cretaceous sandstones, and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Multiple phases of deformation are present in the Precambrian rocks. The structural trend of the rocks in the Liberian and Eburnean-age provinces is principally north-east, whereas that of the Pan African-province is mainly north-west. A number of major north-east-trending faults in eastern Liberia are extensions of regional structures, which extend into Côte d'Ivoire and include the economically important Cestos, Dugbe, Dube and Juazohn shear zones. The Lofa River Shear Zone in north-west Liberia also trends north-east. The north-west-trending Todi Shear Zone marks the boundary of the Pan African province and comprises a series of south-west-dipping faults associated with intense zones of mylonite. The extensive Archaean and Proterozoic terranes that are present in Liberia are highly prospective for many metals and industrial minerals, but an understanding of the detailed geology is poorly known.
Laws and Regulations
SECTION 2. EXPLORATION RIGHTS
2.1. Grant of Exploration Rights
A License grants to the Licensee for the License Term the exclusive (except as provided
in Section 2.4) right to Explore in the License Area on the terms and conditions set forth in this regulation for such Minerals as may be specified in the License. The right to Explore does not include the right to engage in bulk sampling or pilot mining and
recovery except in compliance with Section 13.2, or to conduct exploration in any
portion of the License Area after that portion has been surrendered or deemed
surrendered pursuant to the relevant provisions of this regulation or after the License
Term has expired or otherwise been terminated as provided in this regulation.
2.2. Limitations on the Right of a Licensee to Conduct Exploration
(a) A Licensee may not conduct exploration for minerals outside of its License Area.
(b) A Licensee may not begin Exploration (except for preparatory Work that does
not involve the actual physical obtaining of geological data, such as importation
of equipment, establishment of a local office, remote sensing data interpretation,
or the conduct of aerial surveys or ground surveys using existing access roads in
each case for such activities as planning exploration access roads, camp
locations or survey patterns) unless the activities involved are provided for in a
work program and budget approved or deemed approved by the Minister under
Section 4 and the Licensee has provided any security for environmental
remediation or restoration required by Section 10.3.
2.3. Impact on a Licensee’s Environmental Management Program of EPA
(a) Subject to the remainder of this Section 2.3, any documentation concerning a
Licensee’s work program or its environmental management proposals submitted
by a Licensee to the EPA under the EPA Act must be consistent with the
Licensee’s Environmental Management Program, including its closure
management component, as then proposed to or approved by the Minister.
(b) Licensees should anticipate that if the EPA requires a Licensee to submit an
“environmental mitigation plan” or similar plan under the EPA Act, the EPA may
require more detail and impose more specific, measurable performance
requirements than will an Environmental Management Program contained in a
work program that has been approved by the Minister.
(c) If a Licensee is required by the EPA to adopt an “environmental mitigation plan”
or similar plan under the EPA Act that is inconsistent with the Environmental
Management Program component of the Licensee’s work program as approved
by the Minister, the Licensee must promptly submit to the Minister a revised
Environmental Management Program that conforms to the requirements of theEPA-approved “environmental mitigation plan.” The Minister must approve such
plan if it accurately reflects the requirements of the EPA.
(d) An EPA-approved “environmental mitigation plan” or similar plan is not
inconsistent with a Licensee’s approved Environmental Management Program
except to the extent it imposes requirements that cannot be performed if the
Licensee performs its approved Environmental Management Program or that if
performed, make it impossible for the Licensee to perform its approved
Environmental Management Program.
(e) If in the judgment of the Licensee, particular work to be performed under the
EPA-approved “environmental management plan” or similar plan would if
performed render particular work to be performed under its approved
Environmental Management Program redundant or unnecessary but not
impossible to be performed, the Licensee may apply to the Minister for a
determination that the particular work under the approved Environmental
Management Program need not be performed. The Minister may not
unreasonably deny such an application.
(f) If responsibility for administering applicable environmental Law as it applies to
licensees under the Mining Law is delegated to the Ministry, this regulation is not
applicable to the exercise of such responsibility, and the applicability to a
Licensee of any requirements established by the Ministry in the exercise of such
delegated authority will not be determined under this regulation.
(The full exploration regulations and the mining law of 2000 can be downloaded on the data tab)
No information has been provided.